Selected Glossary Page

Agricultural Chemistry:
the fields of the sciences relating to food and fibre production and processing. These include the technologies and processes of soil preparation, crop cultivation and harvesting, animal production, and the processing of plant and animal products for human consumption and use.
Athletic Association:
a group of supporters of sport, exercise, and physical activity in the school boards. The groups often hosted annual competitions or tracked intermural results throughout the school year.
Calisthenics:
exercises, generally light in intensity, that are designed to promote general fitness and develop muscle tone.
Common school:
a basic form of schooling, designed to instruct the mass of the population in the rudiments of literacy, numeracy, morals, and a few other subjects.
Common school act:
an act of the legislature supporting, or establishing, public schools. There were a number of Common school acts passed between 1846 and 1871 in Ontario.
Compulsory attendance:
children to a certain age are required, by law, to attend school.
Domestic Science:
the study of household subjects and skills such as needlework, knitting, culinary arts (cooking, preserving, food preparation, food safety), kitchen and home management. Later it was generally replaced by the term home economics.
Educational Reform:
The plans, or actions, aimed at instituting systematic changes in educational theories and/or practices generally in society or specifically in an identified environment.
Empire Day:
a patriotic celebration observed by Commonwealth countries in honour of the passing of Queen Victoria (originally) and the accomplishments of the British Empire.
Free schools:
public schools that are supported by property taxes levied on the entire population, instead of tuition fees paid by the students or their parents.
Group of Seven (artists):
An association of Canadian painters formed in 1920. The original seven members included Lawren Harris, J.E.H. MacDonald, Arthur Lismer, A.Y. Jackson, Franklin Carmichael, Frederick Varley and Frank (Franz) Johnston. As a group, they gained critical acclaim at home and abroad, for their interpretations of the northern Canadian landscape.
Legislative grant:
money granted by the legislature to school boards for the support of schools.
Magic Lantern:
"a kind of lantern by means of which small pictures are represented on the wall of a dark room or on a white sheet, magnified to any size at pleasure" - Imperial Dictionary - 1915
Mill:
a unit for property taxation. The school tax rate might, for example, be 13 “mills.”
Minutes:
the official record of the proceedings at a meeting of a society, committee, or other group.
Normal School:
a training school for teachers, offering standardized training methods and opportunities for teacher training. Later it was generally replaced by the term teachers’ college.
Rate bill:
A regulation or piece of legislation allowing a public school or school board to charge pupils or their parents tuition fees to support the schools.
Ratepayer:
A person who owns property and pays property tax to support public expenditures, for example schools or roads.
School board:
an elected or appointed political body made up of school trustees.
School board chairman or chair:
the trustee at the head of the school board.
School promoter:
a reformer who supports the cause of free and compulsory public schooling.
School Section:
a unit of educational jurisdiction in townships and rural areas, the equivalent of a city school board except with only three trustees.
School trustee:
an elected, or appointed, political official responsible for public schooling in a school board area or school section.
Truancy:
Unlawful absence from school under a compulsory attendance law.
Truant officer:
A person responsible for identifying and disciplining truants.